Research and Studies on Whole Body Vibration Machines

This study investigated the effects of reclined backrest angles on cognitive and psycho-motor tasks during exposure to vertical whole body vibration.

Twenty participants were each exposed to three test stimuli of vertical vibration: 2-8 Hz; 8-14 Hz and 14-20 Hz, plus a stationary control condition whilst seated on a vibration platform at five backrest angles: 0° (recumbent, supine) to 90° (upright). The vibration magnitude was 2.0 ms(-2) root-mean-square.

The participants were seated at one of the backrest angles and exposed to each of the three vibration stimuli while performing a tracking and choice reaction time tasks; then they completed the NASA-TLX workload scales. Apart from 22.5° seat backrest angle for the tracking task, backrest angle did not adversely affect the performance during vibration. However, participants required increased effort to maintain performance during vibration relative to the stationary condition. These results suggest that undertaking tasks in an environment with vibration could increase workload and risk earlier onset of fatigue.

Practitioner Summary Current vibration standards provide guidance for assessing exposures for seated, standing and recumbent positions, but not for semi-recumbent postures. This paper reports new experimental data systematically investigating the effect of backrest angle on human performance. It demonstrates how workload is elevated with whole-body vibration, without getting affected by backrest angle.

Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Indicative of the anabolic potential of mechanical stimuli, animal models have demonstrated that short periods (‹30 minutes) of low-magnitude vibration (‹0.3g), applied at a relatively high frequency (20-90 Hz), will increase the number and width of trabeculae, as well as enhance stiffness and strength of cancellous bone. Here, a 1-year prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial in 70 women, 3-8 years past the menopause, examined the ability of such high-frequency, low-magnitude mechanical signals to inhibit bone loss in the human.

Each day, one-half of the subjects were exposed to short-duration (two 10-minute treatments/day), low-magnitude (2.0 m/s2 peak to peak), 30-Hz vertical accelerations (vibration), whereas the other half stood for the same duration on placebo devices. DXA was used to measure BMD at the spine, hip, and distal radius at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months. Fifty-six women completed the 1-year treatment.

The detection threshold of the study design failed to show any changes in bone density using an intention-to-treat analysis for either the placebo or treatment group. Regression analysis on the a priori study group demonstrated a significant effect of compliance on efficacy of the intervention, particularly at the lumbar spine. Posthoc testing was used to assist in identifying various subgroups that may have benefited from this treatment modality. Evaluating those in the highest quartile of compliance (86% compliant), placebo subjects lost 2.13% in the femoral neck over 1 year, whereas treatment was associated with a gain of 0.04%, reflecting a 2.17% relative benefit of treatment. In the spine, the 1.6% decrease observed over 1 year in the placebo group was reduced to a 0.10% loss in the active group, indicating a 1.5% relative benefit of treatment. Considering the interdependence of weight, the spine of lighter women (‹65 kg), who were in the highest quartile of compliance, exhibited a relative benefit of active treatment of 3.35% greater BMD over 1 year; for the mean compliance group, a 2.73% relative benefit in BMD was found. These preliminary results indicate the potential for a non-invasive, mechanically mediated intervention for osteoporosis. This non-pharmacological approach represents a physiologically based means of inhibiting the decline in BMD that follows menopause, perhaps most effectively in the spine of lighter women who are in the greatest need of intervention.

Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is an emerging strategy used by athletes and exercising individuals to potentially accelerate muscle recovery. WBV elicits involuntary muscle stretch reflex contractions leading to increased motor unit recruitment and synchronization of synergist muscles which may lead to greater training adaptations over time.

Intense exercise training, especially eccentric muscle contractions will inevitably lead to muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) which may interfere with the maintenance of a planned training program.

WBV before and after exercise is showing promise for attenuating muscle soreness and may be considered as an adjunct to traditional therapies (i.e. massage, cryotherapy) to accelerate muscle recovery.

Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Several groups have undertaken studies to evaluate the physiologic effects of whole-body vibration (WBV). However, the value of WBV in a training program remains unknown.

This study was performed to investigate whether a WBV program results in a better strength and postural control performance than an equivalent exercise program performed without vibration.

Thirty-three Belgian competitive skiers (ages = 9-15 years) were assigned to either the WBV (Whole Body Vibration) group or the equivalent resistance (ER) group for 6 weeks of training at intervals of 3 times per week.

They measured Isokinetic plantar and dorsiflexion peak torque, isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque, explosive strength (high box test), and postural control were assessed before and after the training period.

Both training programs significantly improved isokinetic ankle and knee muscle strength and explosive strength. Moreover, the increases in explosive strength and in plantar-flexor strength at low speed were significantly higher in the WBV group than in the ER group after 6 weeks. However, neither WBV training nor ER training seemed to have an effect on postural control.

A strength training program that includes WBV appears to have additive effects in young skiers compared with an equivalent program that does not include WBV. Therefore, our findings support the hypothesis that WBV training may be a beneficial supplementary training technique in strength programs for young athletes.

Recent studies have indicated that plantar-based vibration may be an effective approach for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We addressed the hypothesis of whether the plantar vibration operated by way of the skeletal muscle pump, resulting in enhanced blood and fluid flow to the lower body.

We combined plantar stimulation with upright tilt table testing in 18 women aged 46-63 yr. We used strain-gauge plethysmography to measure calf blood flow, venous capacitance, and the microvascular filtration relation, as well as impedance plethysmography to examine changes in leg, splanchnic, and thoracic blood flow while supine at a 35 degrees upright tilt.

A vibrating platform was placed on the footboard of a tilt table, and measurements were made at 0, 15, and 45 Hz with an amplitude of 0.2 g point to point, presented in random order. Impedance-measured supine blood flows were significantly increased in the calf (30%), pelvic (26%), and thoracic regions (20%) by plantar vibration at 45 Hz.

Moreover, the 25-35% decreases in calf and pelvic blood flows associated with upright tilt were reversed by plantar vibration, and the decrease in thoracic blood flow was significantly attenuated. Strain-gauge measurements showed an attenuation of upright calf blood flow. In addition, the microvascular filtration relation was shifted with vibration, producing a pronounced increase in the threshold for edema, due to enhanced lymphatic flow.

The results suggest that plantar vibration serves to significantly enhance peripheral and systemic blood flow, peripheral lymphatic flow, and venous drainage, which may account for the apparent ability of such stimuli to influence bone mass.

Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Prolonged immobilization of the human body results in functional impairments and musculoskeletal system deconditioning that may be attenuated by adequate muscle exercise.

In a 56-day horizontal bed rest campaign involving voluntary males we investigated the effects of vibration muscle exercise (RVE, 2x6 min daily) on the lower limb skeletal muscles using a newly designed foot plantar trainer (Galileo Space) for use at supine position during bed rest.

The maximally voluntary isometric plantar flexion force was maintained following regular RVE bouts during bed rest. At the start and end of bed rest muscle biopsies were taken from both mixed fast/slow-type vastus lateralis and mainly slow-type soleus muscle, each having n=10.

RVE group: the size of myofiber types I and II was largely unchanged in VL (vastus lateralis), and increased in SOL.

In the controlled group: the SOL depicted a disrupted pattern of myofibers I/II profiles suggesting a slow-to-fast muscle phenotype shift. RVE training increased the activity-dependent expression of nitric oxide synthase type 1 immunofluorescence at SOL and VL myofiber membranes.

These data provides evidence for the beneficial effects of RVE training on the deconditioned structure and function of the lower limb skeletal muscle. Daily short RVE should be employed as an effective atrophy countermeasure co-protocol preferentially addressing postural calf muscles during prolonged clinical immobilization or long-term human space missions.

Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Occupationally used high-frequency vibration is supposed to have negative effects on blood flow and muscle strength. Conversely, low-frequency vibration used as a training tool appears to increase muscle strength, but nothing is known about its effects on peripheral circulation. The aim of this investigation was to quantify alterations in muscle blood volume after whole muscle vibration--after exercising on the training device Galileo 2000 (Novotec GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). Twenty healthy adults performed a 9-min standing test. They stood with both feet on a platform, producing oscillating mechanical vibrations of 26 Hz. Alterations in muscle blood volume of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were assessed with power Doppler sonography and arterial blood flow of the popliteal artery with a Doppler ultrasound machine. Measurements were performed before and immediately after exercising. Power Doppler indices indicative of muscular blood circulation in the calf and thigh significantly increased after exercise. The mean blood flow velocity in the popliteal artery increased from 6.5 to 13.0 cm x s (-1) and its resistive index was significantly reduced. The results indicate that low-frequency vibration does not have the negative effects on peripheral circulation known from occupational high-frequency vibration.

Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Fatigue or lack of interest can reduce the feasibility of intensive physical exercise in nursing home residents. Low-volume exercise interventions with similar training effects might be an alternative. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the feasibility of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) in institutionalised elderly patients, and its impact on functional capacity and muscle performance.

Twenty-four nursing home residents (15 female, 9 male; mean age 77.5 +/- 11.0 years) were randomised (stratification for age, gender and ADL-category) to 6 weeks static WBV exercise (WBV+, N = 13) or control (only static exercise; N = 11). Outcome measures were exercise compliance, timed up-and-go, Tinetti-test, back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, handgrip strength and linear isokinetic leg extensions.

RESULTS: At baseline, WBV+ and control groups were similar for all outcome variables. Twenty-one participants completed the program and attended respectively 96% and 86% of the exercise sessions for the WBV+ and control groups. Training-induced changes in timed up-and-go and Tinetti-test were better for WBV+ compared to control (p = 0.029 for timed up-and-go, p = 0.001 and p = 0.002 for Tinetti body balance and total score respectively). In an alternative analysis (Worst Rank Score and Last Observation Carried Forward) the differences in change remained significant on the Tinetti body balance and total score. No other significant differences in change between both groups were observed.

In nursing home residents with limited functional dependency, six weeks of static WBV exercise is feasible, and is beneficial for balance and mobility. The supplementary benefit of WBV on muscle performance compared to classic exercise remains to be explored further.> Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Circulation plays a vital role in tissue healing. Increases in muscle flexibility and strength, secretion of hormones important in the regeneration and repair process, blood flow, and strength of bone tissues has been attributed to whole body vibration (WBV) combined with exercise. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of short-duration, high-intensity, isometric weight bearing exercise (vibration exercise [VE]) and vibration only on skin blood flow (SBF). Forty-five subjects 18-43 years of age were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 - VE, Group 2 - exercise only, and Group 3 - vibration only. SBF was measured using a laser Doppler imager at three time intervals: 1) initial base line, 2) immediately following intervention, and 3) 10-minutes following intervention.

There was no significant difference between the three groups' SBF prior to intervention. Immediately following the intervention a difference among groups was found. Post hoc testing revealed that Group 3 subjects' mean SBF was significantly increased at both post-intervention time intervals. The study findings suggest that short duration vibration alone significantly increases SBF; doubling mean SBF for a minimum of 10 minutes following intervention. The emerging therapeutic modality of WBV as a passive intervention appears to increase SBF in individuals with healthy microcirculation.

Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Recent studies have indicated that plantar-based vibration may be an effective approach for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We addressed the hypothesis of whether the plantar vibration operated by way of the skeletal muscle pump, resulting in enhanced blood and fluid flow to the lower body. We combined plantar stimulation with upright tilt table testing in 18 women aged 46-63 yr. We used strain-gauge plethysmography to measure calf blood flow, venous capacitance, and the microvascular filtration relation, as well as impedance plethysmography to examine changes in leg, splanchnic, and thoracic blood flow while supine at a 35 degrees upright tilt. A vibrating platform was placed on the footboard of a tilt table, and measurements were made at 0, 15, and 45 Hz with an amplitude of 0.2 g point to point, presented in random order. Impedance-measured supine blood flows were significantly (P = 0.05) increased in the calf (30%), pelvic (26%), and thoracic regions (20%) by plantar vibration at 45 Hz. Moreover, the 25-35% decreases in calf and pelvic blood flows associated with upright tilt were reversed by plantar vibration, and the decrease in thoracic blood flow was significantly attenuated. Strain-gauge measurements showed an attenuation of upright calf blood flow. In addition, the microvascular filtration relation was shifted with vibration, producing a pronounced increase in the threshold for edema, P(i), due to enhanced lymphatic flow. Supine values for P(i) increased from 24 +/- 2 mmHg at 0 Hz to 27 +/- 3 mmHg at 15 Hz, and finally to 31 +/- 2 mmHg at 45 Hz (P ‹ 0.01). Upright values for P(i) increased from 25 +/- 3 mmHg at 0 Hz, to 28 +/- 4 mmHg at 15 Hz, and finally to 35 +/- 4 mmHg at 45 Hz. The results suggest that plantar vibration serves to significantly enhance peripheral and systemic blood flow, peripheral lymphatic flow, and venous drainage, which may account for the apparent ability of such stimuli to influence bone mass.

Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a 12 month whole body vibration training program on postural control in healthy older adults. Two hundred and twenty people were randomly assigned to a whole body vibration group (n=94), a fitness group (n=60) or a control group (n=66). The whole body vibration and fitness groups trained three times a week for 1 year. The vibration group performed exercises on a vibration platform and the fitness group performed cardiovascular, strength, balance and stretching exercises. Balance was measured using dynamic computerized posturography at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Whole body vibration training was associated with reduced frequency of falling from a moving platform when vision was disturbed and improvements in the response to toes down rotations at the ankle induced by the moving platform. The fitness group showed reduced falls frequency on the moving surface when vision was disturbed. Thus, whole body vibration training may improve some aspects of postural control in older individuals.

Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

A present day study was conducted to determine the beneficial effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise to benefit the walking ability of the elderly. Sixty-seven elderly participants were divided into two groups; the WBV exercise plus routine exercises group (n=40) and the routine exercises alone group (n=27). WBV exercise was performed on a Galileo machine (Novotec, Pforzheim, Germany) at an intensity of 12-20 Hz, for a duration of 4 minutes, once every week. All the participants in both groups were similarly instructed to undergo routine exercises such as balance and muscle strength training, twice a week. The period of this study was 2 months to evaluate the acute effects of WBV exercise. The mean age of the participants was 72.0 years (range, 59-86 years). At baseline, there were significant negative correlations drawn between age and the walking speed, step length, and maximum standing time on one leg. After the 2-month exercise program, the walking speed, step length, and the maximum standing time on one leg were significantly improved in the WBV exercise plus routine exercises group, while no significant changes in these parameters were observed in the routine exercises group. Thus, the present study showed the beneficial effect of WBV exercise in the elderly. WBV exercise was safe and well tolerated in the elderly.

Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Sixty-seven untrained females (21.4 ± 1.8 yr) participated in the study. The whole-body vibration group (WBV, N = 18) and the placebo group (PL, N = 19) performed static and dynamic knee-extensor exercises on a vibration platform. The acceleration of the vibration platform was between 2.28 g and 5.09 g, whereas only 0.4 g for the PL condition. Vibration (35-40 Hz) resulted in increased EMG activity, but the EMG signal remained unchanged in the PL condition. The resistance-training group (RES, N = 18) trained knee extensors by dynamic leg-press and leg-extension exercises (10-20 RM). All training groups exercised 3× wk-1. The control group (CO, N = 12) did not participate in any training. Pre- and postisometric, dynamic, and ballistic knee-extensor strength, were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer. Explosive strength was determined by means of a counter-movement jump.

Isometric and dynamic knee-extensor strength increased significantly (P ‹ 0.001) in both the WBV group (16.6 ± 10.8%; 9.0 ± 3.2%) and the RES group (14.4 ± 5.3%; 7.0 ± 6.2%), respectively, whereas the PL and CO group showed no significant (P > 0.05) increase. Counter-movement jump height enhanced significantly (P ‹ 0.001) in the WBV group (7.6 ± 4.3%) only. There was no effect of any of the interventions on maximum speed of movement, as measured by means of ballistic tests.

WBV, and the reflexive muscle contraction it provokes, has the potential to induce strength gain in knee extensors of previously untrained females to the same extent as resistance training at moderate intensity. It was clearly shown that strength increases after WBV training.

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a neuromuscular training method that has recently been developed. In WBV training, the subject stands on a platform that generates vertical sinusoidal vibration at a frequency between 35 and 40 Hz. These mechanical stimuli are transmitted to the body where they stimulate in turn sensory receptors, most likely muscle spindles. This leads to the activation of the alpha-motoneurons and initiates muscle contractions comparable to the earlier described tonic vibration reflex (6,11,15). Initially, WBV training was used in elite athletes to improve speed-strength performance. More recently, it is becoming tremendously popular in European health and fitness clubs as an alternative training method. Bosco et al. (3,5) found an increase in force-velocity, force-power and vertical-jump performance immediately after one WBV session. A placebo controlled study showed that a single bout of WBV transiently improves isometric strength of the knee extensors and vertical-jump performance by 3.2% and 2.5%, respectively (22). These effects were recorded 2 min after the intervention but disappeared in the next 60 min.

Some studies analyzed the effect of WBV training on muscle performance over a longer period. Bosco et al. (2) reported the effect of a 10-d training program of a daily series (5 × 90 s) of vertical sinusoidal vibrations at a frequency of 26 Hz. They found a significant improvement of the height and mechanical power during the 5-s continuous-jumping test. It was suggested that WBV training finally might result in neuromuscular adaptations similar to the effect produced by explosive strength training. However, 10 d of training is too short to determine the long-term effects of WBV. Runge et al. (20) showed gains of 18% in chair-rising time in elderly persons after 12 wk WBV training (27 Hz). Recently, Torvinen et al. (23) reported a significant increase in jump performance (8.5%) and a nonsignificant increase in isometric limb extension strength (2.5%) after a 4-month WBV intervention (25-30 Hz) in young nonathletic adults. As none of these long-term studies were placebo controlled, it is impossible to determine whether the training effect on strength and jump performance resulted from the exercises that were performed on the platform or from the vibration induced muscle activation.

This is the first long-term study to differentiate between the effects resulting from the exercises performed on the platform with vibration and without vibration (placebo) and to compare the effects of WBV training and resistance training by means of weight machines at moderate intensity. Therefore, the changes in isometric, dynamic, ballistic knee-extensor strength, and counter-movement jump (CMJ) height were analyzed in young female adults after a 12-wk training period. As WBV elicits a high degree of muscle activation, it was hypothesized that WBV would result in strength increase in previously untrained persons. These strength increases should be significantly larger than the training effects resulting from an identical exercise program performed in absence of vibration (placebo condition). As the tonic vibration reflex facilitates the activation of high-threshold motor units and the reflex sensitivity (1,18), WBV training may be more efficient to improve ballistic strength and jump performance compared with resistance training at moderate intensity.

Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

Vibration exercise (VbX) is a new type of physical training to increase muscle power. The present study was designed to assess the influence of whole-body VbX on metabolic power. Specific oxygen uptake (sVO(2)) was assessed, testing the hypotheses that sVO(2) increases with the frequency of vibration (tested in 10 males) and with the amplitude (tested in 8 males), and that the VbX-related increase in sVO(2) is enhanced by increased muscle force (tested in 8 males). With a vibration amplitude of 5 mm, a linear increase in sVO(2) was found from frequencies 18 to 34 Hz (p ‹ 0.01). Each vibration cycle evoked an oxygen consumption of approximately 2.5 micro l x kg(-1). At a vibration frequency of 26 Hz, sVO(2) increased more than proportionally with amplitudes from 2.5 to 7.5 mm. With an additional load of 40 % of the lean body mass attached to the waist, sVO(2) likewise increased significantly. A further increase was observed when the load was applied to the shoulders. The present findings indicate that metabolic power in whole-body VbX can be parametrically controlled by frequency and amplitude, and by application of additional loads. These results further substantiate the view that VbX enhances muscular metabolic power, and thus muscle activity.

In this study we investigated metabolic power during whole-body vibration exercise (VbX) compared to mild resistance exercise. Specific oxygen consumption (VO2) and subjectively perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion, RPE; Borg scale) were assessed in 12 young healthy subjects (8 female and 4 male). The outcome parameters were assessed during the last minute of a 3-min exercise bout, which consisted of either (1) simple standing, (2) squatting in cycles of 6 s to 90 degrees knee flexion, and (3) squatting as before with an additional load of 40% of the subject's body weight (35% in females). Exercise types 1-3 were performed with (VbX+) and without (VbX-) platform vibration at a frequency of 26 Hz and an amplitude of 6 mm. Compared to the VbX- condition, the specific VO2 was increased with vibration by 4.5 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1). Likewise, squatting and the additional load were factors that further increased VO2. Corresponding changes were observed in RPE. There was a correlation between VbX- and VbX+ values for exercise types 1-3 (r = 0.90). The correlation coefficient between squat/no-squat values (r = 0.70 without and r = 0.71 with the additional load) was significantly lower than that for VbX-/VbX+.

Source: Institut für Physiologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vibration on the mechanical properties of arm flexors. A group of 12 international level boxers, all members of the Italian national team, voluntarily participated in the experiment: all were engaged in regular boxing training. At the beginning of the study they were tested whilst performing forearm flexion with an extra load equal to 5% of the subjects' body mass. Following this, one arm was given the experimental treatment (E; mechanical vibration) and the other was the control (no treatment). The E treatment consisted of five repetitions lasting 1-min each of mechanical vibration applied during arm flexion in isometric conditions with 1?min rest between them. Further tests were performed 5?min immediately after the treatment on both limbs. The results showed statistically significant enhancement of the average power in the arm treated with vibrations. The root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) had not changed following the treatment but, when divided by mechanical power, (P) as an index of neural efficiency, it showed statistically significant increases. It was concluded that mechanical vibrations enhanced muscle P and decreased the related EMG/P relationship in elite athletes. Moreover, the analysis of EMGrms recorded before the treatment and during the treatment itself showed an enormous increase in neural activity during vibration up to more than twice the baseline values. This would indicate that this type of treatment is able to stimulate the neuromuscular system more than other treatments used to improve neuromuscular properties.

Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute responses of blood hormone concentrations and neuromuscular performance following whole-body vibration (WBV) treatment. Fourteen male subjects [mean (SD) age 25 (4.6) years] were exposed to vertical sinusoidal WBV, 10 times for 60 s, with 60 s rest between the vibration sets (a rest period lasting 6 min was allowed after 5 vibration sets). Neuromuscular performance tests consisting of counter-movement jumps and maximal dynamic leg presses on a slide machine, performed with an extra load of 160% of the subject’s body mass, and with both legs were administered before and immediately after the WBV treatment. The average velocity, acceleration, average force, and power were calculated and the root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) were recorded from the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles simultaneously during the leg-press measurement. Blood samples were also collected, and plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol (C) were measured. The results showed a significant increase in the plasma concentration of T and GH, whereas C levels decreased. An increase in the mechanical power output of the leg extensor muscles was observed together with a reduction in EMGrms activity. Neuromuscular efficiency improved, as indicated by the decrease in the ratio between EMGrms and power. Jumping performance, which was measured using the counter-movement jump test, was also enhanced. Thus, it can be argued that the biological mechanism produced by vibration is similar to the effect produced by explosive power training (jumping and bouncing). The enhancement of explosive power could have been induced by an increase in the synchronisation activity of the motor units, and/or improved co-ordination of the synergistic muscles and increased inhibition of the antagonists. These results suggest that WBV treatment leads to acute responses of hormonal profile and neuromuscular performance. It is therefore likely that the effect of WBV treatment elicited a biological adaptation that is connected to a neural effect, similar to those reported to occur following resistance and explosive power training. In conclusion, it is suggested that WBV influences proprioceptive feedback mechanisms and specific neural components, leading to an improvement of neuromuscular performance. Moreover, since the hormonal responses, characterised by an increase in T and GH concentration and a decrease in C concentration, and the increase in neuromuscular effectiveness were simultaneous but independent, it is speculated that the two phenomena might have common underlying mechanisms.

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